Standards

Next Generation Science Standards

Patterns can be used to identify cause and effect relationships.

Complex and microscopic structures and systems can be visualized, modeled, and used to describe how their function depends on the shapes, composition, and relationships among its parts, therefore complex natural structures/systems can be analyzed to determine how they function.

In multicellular organisms, the body is a system of interacting tissues and organs, specialized for particular body functions.

Growth and Development of Organisms
Animals engage in characteristic behaviors that increase the odds of reproduction.

Information Processing
Sense receptors transmit signals along nerve cells to the brain, resulting in behaviors.

Genes control the traits of the organism. Changes (mutations) to genes can affect the structures and functions of the organism and thereby change traits.

The fossil record documents the existence, diversity, extinction, and change of many life forms throughout the history of life on Earth.

Anatomical similarities and differences between various organisms living today and between them and organisms in the fossil record, enable the reconstruction of evolutionary history and the inference of lines of evolutionary descent.

Adaptation by natural selection acting over generations is one important process by which species change over time in response to changes in environmental conditions.

Scientists and engineers are guided by habits of mind such as intellectual honesty, tolerance of ambiguity, skepticism, and openness to new ideas.

Science assumes that objects and events in natural systems occur in consistent patterns that are understandable through measurement and observation.

Science knowledge is based upon logical and conceptual connections between evidence and explanations. 

California Standards

1.

Cell Biology
1. All living organisms are composed of cells, from just one to many trillions, whose details usually are visible only through a microscope.

Cell Biology
1. All living organisms are composed of cells, from just one to many trillions, whose details usually are visible only through a microscope. As a basis for understanding this concept:
f. Students know that as multicellular organisms develop, their cells differentiate.

Genetics
2. A typical cell of any organism contains genetic instructions that specify its traits. Those traits may be modified by environmental influences.

2.a

Genetics
2. A typical cell of any organism contains genetic instructions that specify its traits. Those traits may be modified by environmental influences. As a basis for understanding this concept:
a. Students know the differences between the life cycles and reproduction methods of sexual and asexual organisms.

Genetics
2. A typical cell of any organism contains genetic instructions that specify its traits. Those traits may be modified by environmental influences. As a basis for understanding this concept:
d. Students know plant and animal cells contain many thousands of different genes and typically have two copies of every gene. The two copies (or alleles) of the gene may or may not be identical, and one may be dominant in determining the phenotype while the other is recessive.

Genetics
2. A typical cell of any organism contains genetic instructions that specify its traits. Those traits may be modified by environmental influences. As a basis for understanding this concept:
e. Students know DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is the genetic material of living organisms and is located in the chromosomes of each cell.

Evolution
3. Biological evolution accounts for the diversity of species developed through gradual processes over many generations.

Evolution
3. Biological evolution accounts for the diversity of species developed through gradual processes over many generations. As a basis for understanding this concept:
 a. Students know both genetic variation and environmental factors are causes of evolution and diversity of organisms.

Evolution
3. Biological evolution accounts for the diversity of species developed through gradual processes over many generations. As a basis for understanding this concept:
c. Students know how independent lines of evidence from geology, fossils, and comparative anatomy provide the bases for the theory of evolution.

Evolution
3. Biological evolution accounts for the diversity of species developed through gradual processes over many generations. As a basis for understanding this concept:
e. Students know that extinction of a species occurs when the environment changes and the adaptive characteristics of a species are insufficient for its survival.

4.

Earth and Life History (Earth Sciences)
4. Evidence from rocks allows us to understand the evolution of life on Earth.

Earth and Life History (Earth Sciences)
4. Evidence from rocks allows us to understand the evolution of life on Earth. As a basis for understanding this concept:
b. Students know the history of life on Earth has been disrupted by major catastrophic events, such as major volcanic eruptions or the impacts of asteroids.

Earth and Life History (Earth Sciences)
4. Evidence from rocks allows us to understand the evolution of life on Earth. As a basis for understanding this concept:
e. Students know fossils provide evidence of how life and environmental conditions have changed.

Earth and Life History (Earth Sciences)
4. Evidence from rocks allows us to understand the evolution of life on Earth. As a basis for understanding this concept:
g. Students know how to explain significant developments and extinctions of plant and animal life on the geologic time scale.

The anatomy and physiology of plants and animals illustrate the complementary nature of structure and function.

Structure and Function in Living Systems
5. The anatomy and physiology of plants and animals illustrate the complementary nature of structure and function. As a basis for understanding this concept:
a. Students know plants and animals have levels of organization for structure and function, including cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, and the whole organism.

Structure and Function in Living Systems
5. The anatomy and physiology of plants and animals illustrate the complementary nature of structure and function. As a basis for understanding this concept:
c. Students know how bones and muscles work together to provide a structural framework for movement.

Structure and Function in Living Systems
5. The anatomy and physiology of plants and animals illustrate the complementary nature of structure and function. As a basis for understanding this concept:
g. Students know how to relate the structures of the eye and ear to their functions.
 

Investigation and Experimentation
7. Scientific progress is made by asking meaningful questions and conducting careful investigations. As a basis for understanding this concept and addressing the content in the other three strands, students should develop their own questions and perform investigations.